WHP Logo

The White Horse Press

Environmental Values

Contents of Volume 24

Other volumes of EV

Environmental Values

Landscape Democracy, Three Sets of Values, and the Connoisseur Method

Finn Arler and Helena Mellqvist

Environmental Values 24 (2015): 271-298. doi: 10.3197/096327115X14273714154494


The European Landscape Convention has brought up the question of democracy in relation to landscape transformation, but without a clear definition of democracy. This paper conceptualises democracy in relation to three main sets of values related to self-determination, co-determination and respect for argument. It examines various methods that have been used to try to make landscape decisions more democratic. In the last part of the paper the connoisseur method is introduced. This method emphasises stakeholder participation in deliberative processes with a particular focus on place-based knowledge. It has been used in Sweden as a means of involving local stakeholders in the democratic process of defining goals and objectives of their landscapes. In the conclusion, this method is recommended despite its dependence on favourable conditions, particularly continuity and commitment, and a few suggestions about possible improvements are presented.


Landscape Convention, landscape democracy, deliberative democracy, participation, self-determination, co-determination, focus groups, citizen juries, economic valuation, preference surveys, connoisseurs

REFERENCES to other articles in Environmental Values:

How Much is that Ecosystem in the Window? The One with the Bio-diverse Trail. Clive L. Spash

The Environment as a Commodity Arild Vatn

CITATIONS in other Environmental Values articles

Editorial: Democratic and Practical Engagements with Environmental Values. Alex Loftus

Download full text (PDF format) from IngentaConnect. Access is free if your institution subscribes to Environmental Values.

Subscriptions and back numbers of Environmental Values.

Other papers in this volume

The Old Vicarage, Winwick
Cambridgeshire, PE28 5PN, UK
Tel: +44 1832 293222